This booklet is intended to provide an overview of some of the key issues and jargon surrounding data protection in the digital environment. At its core, data protection is about preserving a fundamental right that is reflected in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Council of Europe Convention 108, as well as other international agreements and national constitutions. The processing and re-use of citizens’ data has become increasingly important from an economic perspective. It has lead to pressure to weaken this fundamental right and also to change the legislative framework to make legal protections less predictable. We hope that this document will be a positive contribution to the debate, and that the outcome of the review process will ensure predictable and proportionate protection of privacy in the digital age – reinforcing the European Union’s global leadership on this topic.