How to send a sensitive message protecting it from spying eyes? Encrypt it. You think your message is not sensitive or that no one is spying on you? Encrypt it anyway.
When you send your message encrypted, no-one else but the intended recipient can read it. Even if someone manages to catch the message when it’s on its way to the recipient, they will not be able to read its contents – they can only see something that looks like a random set of characters.
Encryption is essential for the protection of our digital infrastructure and communications, but it is still burdened by some myths that keep on surfacing in discussions.
1. For spies and geeks only
Not only spies, criminals and privacy geeks use encryption. In fact, everyone is benefiting from it on a daily basis, even if everyone is not aware of it. Encryption not only guarantees the confidentiality of our communications, but it also makes our lives easier and enables digitalisation of the society.
Electronic banking? Encryption is what makes our transactions safe and secure. The same goes for any online activities of businesses to protect themselves against fraud. Citizens submit digital tax returns, the intelligence community encrypts state secrets, the army sends orders securely in order to avoid compromising military operations, and civil servants negotiate trade deals by sending messages that only the addressee can read (or they should!). Journalists rely on it to protect their sources and information when investigating confidential or potentially dangerous issues of crime, corruption, or other highly sensitive topics, performing their role of the democratic watchdogs. Without encryption ensuring authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality of information, all this could be compromised.
2. Who cares?
Encryption enables us to collect information and communicate with others without outside interference. It ensures the confidentiality of our communications, for example with our doctors, lawyers, partners. It is an increasingly important building block for freedom of expression and respect for privacy. When you achieve privacy through confidentiality of your communication, you are able to express yourself more freely. People prefer to use messaging apps like Signal and WhatsApp, which enable privacy of their communications by employing end-to-end encryption. In a survey, requested by the European Commission, nine out of ten respondents agreed they should be able to encrypt their messages and calls, so they can only be read by the intended recipient. No matter whether you are making dinner plans, sharing an intimate message or dealing with state secrets, whether you are a president, a pop star or just an ordinary citizen, the right to have control over your private communication and protect it from hackers and government surveillance matters.
3. Criminals, terrorists, and the old “privacy versus security”
How do you make sure encryption is not used with bad intentions? It’s simple – you cannot. But this does not mean it makes sense for governments to weaken encryption in order to fight terrorism and cybercrime. It only opens Pandora’s box – when supposedly making sure that terrorists have no place to hide, we are exposing ourselves at the same time.
From a technical point of view, encryption cannot be weakened “just a little”, without potentially introducing additional vulnerabilities, even if unintentionally. When there is a vulnerability, anyone can take advantage of it, not just police investigators or intelligence services of a specific country when necessary. Sooner or later, a secret vulnerability will be cracked by a malicious user, perhaps the same one it was meant to be safeguarding us from.
Therefore, weakening or banning of encryption in order to monitor any person’s communications and activities is a bad idea. The number of possibilities for criminals to evade government-ordered restrictions on encryption is vast. Knowledge of encryption already exists, and its further development and use cannot be prevented. As a result, only innocent individuals, companies, and governments will suffer from weak encryption standards.
EDRi: Position paper on encryption (25.01.2016)
EDRi paper: How the internet works?, page 6: Encryption
Surveillance Self-Defense: What Is Encryption?
Winning the debate on encryption — a 101 guide for politicians (21.04.2017)
(Contribution by Zarja Protner, EDRi intern)